As a composer she achieved a modest amount of fame and is most known for her smaller chamber works, which included trios, marches, cantatas, songs and fugues. In , she studied musical theory and composition with Johann Philipp Kirnberger , a student of Johann Sebastian Bach. She composed chamber music such as flute sonatas. Her works of curation are a significant contribution to Western culture. Elisabeth Olin — was a Swedish opera singer and composer. She debuted as Alfhild in Syrinx referred to as Sweden's first native Opera comique , at Bollhuset in She became a famed vocalist in the regular public concerts at Riddarhuset in Stockholm , and published her own compositions; she was one of the Swedish composers who wrote one composition each for the collection Gustaviade.
A heroic poem of twelve songs' from ; where she wrote the composition number eight. She began working in minor comedy roles from the age of seven and debuted as a soloist at the Paris Opera in Anna Bon —? She dedicated her six op. She dedicated the published set of six harpsichord sonatas , op.
Jane Mary Guest — was an English composer and pianist. A pupil of Johann Christian Bach , and initially composing in the galante style,  she composed keyboard sonatas , other keyboard works and vocal works with keyboard accompaniment. Marianne von Martinez — was an Austrian composer, singer and pianist.
Metastasio noticed her precocious talents and came to oversee her musical education, which included keyboard lessons from Haydn , singing lessons with Porpora and composition lessons with Johann Adolph Hasse and the Imperial court composer Giuseppe Bonno.
She was a native speaker of both Italian and German and knew French and English. She wrote a number of secular cantatas and two oratorios to Italian texts. Surviving compositions include four masses , six motets , and three litanies for choir. She wrote in the Italian style, as was typical for the early Classical period in Vienna. Her harpsichord performance practice was compared to the style of C.
Her Italian oratorio Isacco figura del redentore was premiered by massive forces in Maria Szymanowska — was a well-known Polish composer and pianist. She wrote in many of the same genres as fellow Pole Frederic Chopin — Szymanowska maintained connections with several famous nineteenth-century people, including Gioacchino Rossini , Johann Wolfgang von Goethe , and Adam Mickiewicz , Poland's greatest poet.
Fanny Mendelssohn — was one of the best-known women composers of the s. She showed prodigious musical ability as a child and began to write music. Even though famous visitors to her family home were equally impressed by Fanny and her brother Felix Mendelssohn , Fanny was limited by prevailing attitudes of the time toward women. Her father was tolerant, rather than supportive, of her activities as a composer. Her father wrote to her in , telling her that "[m]usic will perhaps become his [i.
Felix's] profession, while for you it can and must be only an ornament [in your life]". He wrote:. She is too much all that a woman ought to be for this. She regulates her house, and neither thinks of the public nor of the musical world, nor even of music at all, until her first duties are fulfilled.
Publishing would only disturb her in these, and I cannot say that I approve of it'. Clara Schumann — was a German composer and concert pianist who had a year concert career, which changed the format and repertoire of the piano recital and the tastes of the listening public. From an early age, she had a one-hour lesson in piano, violin, singing, theory, harmony, composition, and counterpoint.
In , at the age of eleven, she had become a virtuoso soloist and she left on a concert tour of European cities. In the late s, she performed to sell-out crowds and laudatory critical reviews. She was also instrumental in changing the kind of programs expected of concert pianists. In her early career, before her marriage to Robert Schumann , she played what was then customary, mainly bravura pieces designed to showcase the artist's technique, often in the form of arrangements or variations on popular themes from operas, written by virtuosos such as Thalberg, Herz, or Henselt.
As it was also customary to play one's own compositions, she included at least one of her own works in every program, works such as her Variations on a Theme by Bellini Op. Her works include songs, piano pieces, a piano concerto, a piano trio , choral pieces, and three Romances for violin and piano. Hoover was the winner of the National Flute Association's Newly Published Music Competition twice, first in with her piece Medieval Suite and second in with her piece Kokopelli for solo flute.
These pieces utilize many extended techniques for flute, such as pitch bending. Many of her works have been recorded by renowned musicians and performed in Carnegie Hall. Joan Tower born wrote her piece Black Topaz , which features many tonal melodies and harmonies. She was commissioned in by the American Composers Orchestra, resulting in her first orchestral work, Sequoia.
This has been performed by numerous orchestras worldwide. From Tower was the composer-in-residence at the St. Louis Symphony. Since then, Tower has been the composer-in-residence at numerous music festivals, including the Norfolk Chamber Music Festival and Tanglewood Contemporary Music Festival. Tower has been a professor of music at Bard College in New York since and is considered one of the most influential women composers of the 20th century.
Ellen Taaffe Zwilich born received her Doctorate in Composition from Juilliard and was the first woman to ever achieve this. The same year, she won a gold medal at the International Composition Competition in Italy. In Zwilich made history again, becoming the first woman to win the Pulitzer Prize in music for her Symphony No.
Since this success, she has received many commissions. Her piece Millennium has been performed by twenty-seven orchestras since its premiere in Though her music was originally very dissonant and influenced by the Second Viennese School, her style became more emotional after the death of her husband. Larsen composed over works, including orchestra, dance, opera, choral, theater, chamber, and solo repertoire.
Her pieces have been performed across the United States and Europe. Additional notable female composers are listed below. Some are also notable as performers e. Amy Beach and Verdina Shlonsky were noted pianists. For a full list, see List of female composers by birth year. Women have a high prominence in many popular music styles as singers. However, professional women instrumentalists are uncommon in popular music, especially in rock genres such as heavy metal. Philip Auslander says that "Although there were many women in rock by the late s, most performed only as singers, a traditionally feminine position in popular music".
Though some women played instruments in American all-female garage rock bands , none of these bands achieved more than regional success. So they "did not provide viable templates for women's on-going participation in rock". A number of these artists are also notable for singing and songwriting, but they are listed here for their instrumental skills :.
An all-female band is a musical group in popular music genres such as rock, blues , jazz and related genres which is exclusively composed of female musicians. This is distinct from a girl group , in which the female members are solely vocalists, though this terminology is not universally followed. A girl group is a music act featuring several female singers who generally harmonize together. The term "girl group" is also used in a narrower sense within English-speaking countries to denote the wave of American female pop music singing groups which flourished in the late s and early s between the decline of early rock and roll and the British Invasion , many of whom were influenced by doo-wop style.
These all-female bands were difficult to maintain, as many earlier groups struggled with replacing female musicians once they departed, and some were forced to open the band to men in order to avoid quitting. Ina Ray Hutton led an all-girl band, the Melodears , from to A Polish group Filipinki was established in Groups composed solely of women began to emerge with the advent of rock and roll. In Fanny became the first all-female band to reach the Hot 's top 40, with "Charity Ball" peaking at No.
In , the Canadian duo of sisters, Kate and Anna McGarrigle , recorded the first of a string of albums. The Runaways were an early commercially successful, hard-edged, all-female hard rock band, releasing their first album in band members Joan Jett , Cherie Currie and Lita Ford all went on to solo careers. The s, for the first time, saw long-sought chart success from all-female bands and female-fronted rock bands. In , one of the most famous female bands, the Dixie Chicks , began playing on street corners in Dallas, Texas.
This band consists of a trio of Natalie Maines as lead singer, Natalie Maguire on the fiddle and mandolin, and Emily Robison , master of banjo, the Dobro, guitar, and the accordion. The Dixie Chicks sold more CDs than all other country music groups combined.
Another famous female band includes the WildWood Girls. Originally the WildWood Pickers beginning in from the Chicago area, the all female band began after the band became a family affair and later, they changed their name to WildWood Girls in , resulting in twice as many bookings. They released six recordings, despite the issues they ran into regarding the fact that they were an all girls band.
Yet, another famous band is the Happy Hollow String brand They were an all female bluegrass band with Sandy Crisco on banjo. Crisco reported that it was difficult to find the ladies restroom during bookings, as due to the lack of female performers, many male instrumentalists did not know where it was. In the United Kingdom, the advent of punk in the late s with its "anyone can do it" ethos led to women making significant contributions.
Rock historian Helen Reddington states that the popular image of young punk women musicians as focused on the fashion aspects of the scene fishnet stockings, spiky blond hair, etc. She states that many, if not most women punks were more interested in the ideology and socio-political implications, rather than the fashion. It wasn't combative, but compatible. So, no, we got no respect anywhere we went. People just didn't want us around. Sonic Youth 's Kim Gordon states, "I think women are natural anarchists, because you're always operating in a male framework.
The all-female heavy metal band Girlschool , from South London, formed in out of the ashes of Painted Lady. While somewhat successful in the UK, they became better known in the early s. One of the original members of the band, Kathy Valentine departed to join the all-female band The Go-Go's , switching from guitar to bass. Women in the heavy metal genre tend to have to limit themselves due to the genre being very male orientated. While there is a perception that the groups in the s and s alternative rock genre of grunge were "overwhelmingly male" e.
In the s, musician's magazines were starting to view female musicians more seriously, putting Bonnie Raitt   and Tina Weymouth  on their covers. While The Go-Go's and The Bangles , both from the LA club scene, were the first all-female rock bands to find sustained success, individual musicians paved the way for the industry to seek out bands that had female musicians.
In the s, bands such as Hole , Super Heroines , The Lovedolls and L7 became popular, while demonstrating on stage, and in interviews, a self-confident and "bad" attitude at times, always willing to challenge assumptions about how an all-female band should behave. Courtney Love described the other females in Hole as using a more "lunar viewpoint" in their roles as musicians. They signed with Virgin Records and their single "Wannabe" came out in and was deemed as number one in 37 different countries. In the s, all female and female fronted bands started using their influence to promote feminism and females in the music industry.
Bands like The Distillers, fronted by Brody Dalle, influenced the rise of street punk. Vincent started gaining more traction and eventually appeared on the cover of Guitar World magazine. Vincent wore a T-shirt with a bikini decal on the magazine cover, a comment on how when women appear with guitars, they're usually dressed very minimally, as a marketing tool to sell the instruments. Haim, a band composed of three sisters, is extremely outspoken when it comes to the promotion of women in music, calling out major music festivals for the lack of female-fronted bands on bills and the lack of payment for female artists as compared to male artists of the same level.
Female musicians and bands are constantly overlooked in favor of male artists, however many people in the music industry have been making an effort to change this. From to , many girl bands have emerged and became more popular. They also broke the record held by the Spice Girls by earning the highest debut US chart position for a British girl group's first release. This group was also on the X Factor in Their three studio albums charted on the top ten of the US Billboard Historically, the majority of well-known women performers in jazz have been singers, such as Ella Fitzgerald , Billie Holiday , Diane Schuur and Dinah Washington.
Culture Trip notes that women in jazz have been "too often confined to the role of chanteuse. In some cases, these musicians are also composers and bandleaders:. There have also been all-female jazz bands such as The International Sweethearts of Rhythm and all female orchestras such as the Hour of Charm Orchestra. Often, during World War II , these all women's groups would entertain the troops while the male musicians served. However, after the war, these girls groups were thrown aside, as male musicians returned and the public favored the "normalcy" it brought, and the over sexualization of females in music returned.
Some of these musicians helped shape jazz music and American culture. When June Norton was young, she wanted to pursue classical music, in hopes that one day she could join the opera. However, this did not seem possible, so she began to pursue popular music. Norton became the first black woman in the region of Washington DC to appear singing in TV commercials marketed towards southern states. She later stepped away from the spotlight and began a career as a counselor and got married to Thomas C.
She spent the rest of her working years helping underprivileged youth and female prisoners. Another female pianist, composer, and vocalist made significant contribution to jazz and the American culture. She continued to tour and play gigs constantly. Her debut recording, Embers and Ashes attracted a large amount of attention and helped her to realize she wanted to be a concert pianist after all.
A few months after this, Miles Davis contacted Horn and told Village Vanguard in New York City that he wanted Horn to open for him, and that he refused to play if this was not a possibility. This is when Horn's fame and reputation began to rise. She continued to work with Mercury Records and Verve Records. Instrumentalists in classical music may focus on one specific type of playing, such as solo recitals, solo concertos, chamber music , or performing as a member of an orchestra, or they may do different types. Some musicians who play orchestral instruments may do all of these types of performances.
Instrumentalists in classical music may do both live performances for an audience and recordings. In some cases, classical performers may do mostly live performances. There has traditionally been a gendered aspect to playing instruments in classical music. Historically, orchestras tended to be almost exclusively male, with the exception of the harp player, as the harp was considered a "women's instrument".
A music newspaper editorial in in England encouraged orchestras to allow women to play the "lighter instruments", with the understanding that these women performers would relinquish their positions to men once WW I was over. Historically, there has been a tendency for brass sections to be male, and some women brass players have alleged that there is gender bias against female brass players. In the past, the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra argued that "ethnic and gender uniformity" gave their orchestra a better sound. It brings disorder.
Another important argument against women is that they can bring the solidarity of the men in question. You find that in all men's groups. The Vienna Philharmonic did not accept women to permanent membership until , far later than comparable orchestras of the other orchestras ranked among the world's top five by Gramophone in ,  the last to appoint a woman to a permanent position was the Berlin Philharmonic.
Women in music
Finally, "after being held up to increasing ridicule even in socially conservative Austria, members of the orchestra gathered [on 28 February ] in an extraordinary meeting on the eve of their departure and agreed to admit a woman, Anna Lelkes, as harpist. She said it chooses "the best we get," implying that full gender equity would take time as older members retire and new ones audition under gender-neutral conditions.
In , an article in Mother Jones stated that "[m]any prestigious orchestras have significant female membership—women outnumber men in the New York Philharmonic 's violin section—and several renowned ensembles, including the National Symphony Orchestra , the Detroit Symphony , and the Minnesota Symphony, are led by women violinists. Brass, percussion, and string-bass orchestra sections are still predominantly male. In classical music, soloists may perform unaccompanied solos on their instrument, as occurs with pianists who play works for solo piano or stringed instruments who play Baroque suites for one instrument e.
In many cases, though, soloists are accompanied, either by a pianist, a small chamber music ensemble, or, in the case of a concerto, by a full symphony orchestra. In the — season, the majority of concerto soloists who performed with major Canadian orchestras were male. Singers in popular music perform the vocals for bands and other music groups, which may range in size from a duo or a power trio to a large jazz big band. Singers typically do both live performances and studio recordings.
Singers who do live performances may sing in small venues such as coffeehouses or nightclubs , or they may perform in larger venues ranging from arts centres to stadiums. Some singers also perform in music videos, which are used to promote the songs.
In some styles of music, singers may play a rhythm section instrument, such as rhythm guitar, electric bass or a percussion instrument while they sing. In some styles of pop, singers perform choreographed dance moves during the show. Singer-songwriter and music producer Bjork has commented on how "women's labor and expertise—inside and outside of the music industry—go unnoticed.
It's like a f[uck]ing boys club that we just can't get in to. Despite funk 's popularity in modern music, few people have examined the work of funk women. As cultural critic Cheryl Keyes explains in her essay "She Was too Black for Rock and too hard for Soul: Re discovering the Musical Career of Betty Mabry Davis," most of the scholarship around funk has focused on the cultural work of men.
She states that " Betty Davis is an artist whose name has gone unheralded as a pioneer in the annals of funk and rock. Most writing on these musical genres has traditionally placed male artist like Jimi Hendrix, George Clinton of Parliament-Funkadelic , and bassist Larry Graham as trendsetters in the shaping of a rock music sensibility"  Below are some of the top-earning female singers in the s. Another way of selecting the most notable singers for this section would be by critical acclaim , but this is a more subjective criteria than earnings.
Almost all of these singers are also songwriters, and some are also music producers:. Below are the top five earning female singers in . In East Asian pop music, during the s, Japanese idol girl groups have been very successful in what is the largest physical music market in the world - and second largest overall -, with 17 number-one singles just in The best-selling among all the J-pop idol girl groups, AKB48 , is the best-selling act in Japan ever by number of singles sold - and third by total number of records sold - and has had as well the best-selling single in the country every year of the decade so far.
Also, the best-selling album ever in the country , First Love , released in , is by a woman, Japanese American singer and songwriter Utada Hikaru. South Korean idol girl groups have also been very successful the s, with Twice having the best-performing single of in the country, as well as having won a total of 43 awards since their debut in October K-pop has become increasingly popular in the US with many idol girl groups climbing their way up the leaderboards.
However, most of the popularity is going towards male groups  , with females still overshadowed by the concept of a boys only club. Classic female blues was an early form of blues music popular in the s. An amalgam of traditional folk blues and urban theater music, the style is also known as vaudeville blues. Classic blues songs performed by female vocalists were accompanied by pianists or small jazz ensembles, and were the first blues to be recorded.
The classic female blues singers were pioneers in the record industry , as they were among the first black singers and blues artists who were recorded. They were also instrumental in popularizing the bar blues throughout the US. Gertrude "Ma" Rainey — , known as the " Mother of the Blues", is credited as the first to perform the blues on stage as popular entertainment when she began incorporating blues into her act of show songs and comedy around In , the vaudeville singer Lucille Hegamin became the second black woman to record blues when she recorded "The Jazz Me Blues".
Nonetheless, the recordings of some of the classic female blues singers were purchased by white buyers as well. The most popular of the classic blues singers was Tennessee -born Bessie Smith no relation to Mamie Smith , who first recorded in and became known as the "Empress of the Blues".
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She signed with Columbia and became the highest-paid black artist of the s, recording over songs. Other classic blues singers who recorded extensively until the end of the s were Ida Cox , Clara Smith , and Sara Martin. These early blues singers were an influence on later singers such as Mahalia Jackson and Janis Joplin. These blues women's contributions to the genre included "increased improvisation on melodic lines, unusual phrasing which altered the emphasis and impact of the lyrics, and vocal dramatics using shouts, groans, moans, and wails. The blues women thus effected changes in other types of popular singing that had spin-offs in jazz, Broadway musicals , torch songs of the s and s, gospel , rhythm and blues , and eventually rock and roll.
Gender discrimination and sexism occurs frequently in country music. In more recent times, a popular subgenre has developed: "Bro-Country", which has lyrics that sexually objectify women and frame them as assets for men's use. Gender discrimination and sexism has become more prominent in this genre over time, going backwards compared to some categories like rap and pop. Eric Rasmussen, a professor in the College of Media and Communication and Texas Tech University, argues that compared to the s and s decade , the country music of the s discriminates more against women.
Some of the ways they discriminate include, "talking more about women's appearance, [showing] women in tight or revealing clothing, comparing women to objects, referring to women in slang [terms] versus their real names, and portraying women as distrustful and cheaters. Women in country music continue to face these issues, and often find no way to directly deal with them.
Kacey Musgraves , a recording artist, describes her experience with sexism in country music by stating that if a label can't get your song off the ground, it's immediately blamed on your personality or the fact that you're female, or that you didn't make a radio station program director feel important. Women like Kacey Musgraves , no matter what they do or change, will almost always fall under some form of scrutiny from her male competitors. A large number of women singers in the country music genre have been influential to the industry through their success.
Despite the popularity of male country artists and the discrimination that is displayed throughout their music, many female artists have worked their way past, leading them to achieve multiple accomplishments. Dolly Parton, a female country singer that has been in the industry for over 55 years, developed a successful career for herself.
Parton consistently created new projects to release to her fans and was described as "unstoppable" by a pop culture magazine titled Rolling Stone. These projects include over 45 musical albums, multiple film features, a Dollywood theme park, and the creation of a production company. Carrie Underwood, the iconic American Idol winner, also created a lasting impact in the country music genre.
With over , units sold, Underwood's album Cry Pretty was her fourth album to reach number one on the Billboard list. These achievements led her to become the first women singer to have four country albums as number one in the all-genre Billboard A women's rights activist and animal lover, Miranda Lambert, is another woman known to have a dominating career within the music industry.
Her songs titled "Over You" and "Heart Like Mine" took over the Billboard charts and country music radio stations in and Lambert uses the fame she has earned from the music industry and works with charities like the Humane Society as a way to give back. While woman have been underrepresented in jazz as instrumentalists, composers, songwriters and bandleaders, there have been many notable women singers.
Bessie Smith sang both the blues and jazz. Lena Horne first appeared in the Cotton Club as a teenager. Ella Fitzgerald and Billie Holiday were known for their ballads during the swing era. Shirley Horn sang both jazz and blues. Nina Simone sang jazz, folk and Rhythm and blues. Etta Jones sang rhythm and blues and jazz. Anita O'Day is known for her contributions to Bebop. Betty Carter sang during the post-bop era. Mary Lou Williams was a singer and pianist during the swing and hard bop eras.
Sarah Vaughan is known for her singing in the Cool Jazz era. Esperanza Spalding has been trying to speak out louder and push towards more conversation about the current discrimination in jazz. In , Esperanza Spalding spent 77 hours straight creating an entire album titled Exposure to help change herself. It quickly became "a display of dauntless prowess and grand ambition  " and showed, to thousands of people  , a woman working confidently within the male dominated space of a recording studio.
Classical singers typically do both live performances and recordings. Live performances may be in small venues, such as churches, or large venues, such as opera halls or arts centers. Classical singers may specialize in specific types of singing, such as art song , which are songs performed with piano accompaniment, or opera, which is singing accompanied by a symphony orchestra in a staged, costumed theatrical production.
Classical singers are typically categorized by their voice type, which indicates both their vocal range and in some cases also the "color" of their voice. Examples of voice types that indicate the range of a singer's voice include contralto , mezzo-soprano and soprano these go from the lowest range to the highest range.
Examples of voice types that indicate both the singer's range and the "color" of her voice type are coloratura soprano and lyric soprano. Whereas popular music singers typically use a microphone and a sound reinforcement system for their vocals, in classical music the voice must be projected into the hall naturally, a skill for which they undertake vocal training. Marian Anderson —  was an African-American contralto of whom music critic Alan Blyth said: "Her voice was a rich, vibrant contralto of intrinsic beauty.
Anderson became an important figure in the struggle for black artists to overcome racial prejudice in the United States during the mid-twentieth century. Roosevelt , Anderson performed a critically acclaimed open-air concert on Easter Sunday, 9 April , on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.
She sang before a crowd of more than 75, people and a radio audience in the millions. Anderson continued to break barriers for black artists in the United States, becoming the first black person, American or otherwise, to perform at the Metropolitan Opera in New York City on 7 January Whether it is hip-hop, country, or popular music , female musicians and performers from all genres experience discrimination and sexist treatment.
In the turn of twentieth century, however, many female vocalists such as Kesha and Lady Gaga came forward with their stories, helping shape the anti-harassment movement. Additionally, under the Me Too Movement , more stories of misconduct and discrimination in the music industry are being re-examined. Another form of sexism in the music industry emanates from the lyrics prevalent in the music. Sarah Neff: "portrayal of women in traditional gender roles, portrayal of women as inferior to men, portrayal of women as objects, portrayal of women as stereotypes , and portrayal of violence against women.
Women play an important role in world music , a musical category encompassing many different styles of music from around the world, including ethnic music and traditional music from Africa, the Caribbean, South America, Asia, and other regions, indigenous music, neotraditional music, and music where more than one cultural tradition intermingle e. The term was popularized in the s as a marketing category for non-Western traditional music.
Brazilian actress, singer and dancer Carmen Miranda became known in the West as exotic supplement in Hollywood films in the s, akin to dancer Josephine Baker before, and the voice of exotica Yma Sumac after her. In the s Elis Regina was the most prominent female singer in the Bossa Nova of Brazilian music that influenced popular music around the world. In the s and s Argentinian folk singer Mercedes Sosa , South African Miriam Makeba or Greek Maria Farantouri were also recognized for their engagement against the oppressive political situation in their home states.
Sosa singing " Gracias a la vida ", Makeba's " Pata Pata ", and Farantouri's collaboration with composer Mikis Theodorakis were musical icons of the struggle for human rights. Arabic music , which has Persian origins,  is an amalgam of the music of the Arab people in the Arabian Peninsula and the music of all the varied peoples that make up the Arab world. In Egypt during the medieval era , male professional musicians during this period were called Alateeyeh plural , or Alatee singular , which means "a player upon an instrument".
However, this name applies to both vocalists as well as instrumentalists. Male professional musicians were considered disreputable and lowly, and they earned their living playing at parties. Female professional musicians in Egypt were called Awalim pl or Al'meh, which means a "learned female". These singers were often hired on the occasion of a celebration in the harem of a wealthy person.
They were not with the harem, but in an elevated room that was concealed by a screen so as not to be seen by either the harem or the master of the house. The female Awalim were more highly paid than male performers and more highly regarded. In the 9th century, using male instrumentalists was harshly criticized in a treatise, because male musicians were associated with perceived vices such as playing chess and writing love poetry.
Following the invasion of Egypt, Napoleon commissioned reports on the state of Ottoman culture. In Chinese music , music was a major activity for women during Ancient times, especially for learned women. Women performers were associated with the guqin since ancient times. The guqin is a plucked seven-string Chinese musical instrument of the zither family. It has traditionally been favored by scholars and literati as an instrument of great subtlety and refinement.
A notable woman guqin player was Cai Wenji , associated with the piece Hujia Shiba-pai. Women musicians also play a key role in Chinese folk music. In southern Fujian and Taiwan , Nanyin or Nanguan music is a genre of traditional Chinese folk ballads. They are sung by a woman accompanied by a xiao flute and a pipa , as well as other traditional instruments. The music is generally sorrowful and typically deals with the topic of a love-stricken woman.
The Chinese pop C-pop music industry in the s and s was dominated by the Seven Great Singing Stars , who were the most renowned singers of China in the s. After , these early generations of C-pop were denounced by the Communist Party of China as Yellow Music as it saw pop music as sexually indecent the color yellow is associated with eroticism and sex in China. Only after the end of the Cultural Revolution , by the early s, could Yellow Music be performed again.
Nowadays, after China's extensive political and cultural changes of the past 50 years, Chinese popular music has been increasingly emulating and taking inspiration from the styles of popular music of South Korea K-pop and of Japan J-pop , both of which it now closely resembles. As such, during the s, several girl groups have been established based both on the Japanese model, like SNH48 created in and its sister groups , as well as on the Korean model, like Rocket Girls , created in from the Chinese version of a Korean reality television talent competition show.
These groups have achieved significant success, with the debut EP of Rocket Girls selling over 1. Indian classical music is the art music of the Indian subcontinent. The origins of Indian classical music can be found in the Hindu hymns. This chanting style evolved into jatis and eventually into ragas. Indian classical music has also been significantly influenced by, or syncretised with, Indian folk music. The major composers from the historical Indian classical music tradition were men. Modern women vocalists include D. Pattammal , M. One woman instrumentalist is Annapurna Devi.
In Indian folk music , lavani is a music genre popular in Maharashtra that is traditionally performed by women. The present musical style is derived from non traditional musical accompaniment to the riffs of Punjab called by the same name. In the music of Bollywood the centre of India's film industry and other regional film industries in India, women playback singers have had a significant role, with the sisters Lata Mangeshkar and Asha Bhosle , who have mainly worked in Hindi films, often referred to as two of the best-known and most prolific playback singers in India.
In , Bhosle was officially acknowledged by the Guinness Book of World Records as the most recorded artist in music history. Since the Iranian revolution , Iranian female solo vocalists have been permitted to perform for female audiences.
Female vocalists can perform for male audiences only as a part of a chorus. Traditionally, it has been difficult for female singers to appear publicly. Women were only allowed to perform for religious rituals, called Tazieh , and men were generally forbidden to listen to women. Before the Revolution, Iranian women could only sing in private, while working, for other women, or during women's celebrations. Qamar ol-Molouk Vaziri is one of the first female masters of Persian music.
The classical singer Fatemeh Vaezi commonly known by her stage name "Parisa" has given concerts accompanied by a female orchestra. After Maryam Akhondy started working with other Iranian musicians in exile. In Maryam Akhondy created the all-female a cappella group Banu which sung old folk songs that were part of women's activities and celebrations. Singer Sima Bina has taught many female students. Ghashang Kamkar teaches both male and female students. Both Ghashang and Vaezi have criticized the patriarchal power structure in Iran for its treatment of female musicians. World music performers include Azam Ali and Cymin Samawatie.
There is literary evidence from biblical books such as The Book of Judges that women including Miriam , Deborah and Hannah , participated in musical traditions that included singing lamentations and playing instruments. However, women are not mentioned in references to liturgy.
Women were eventually banned from liturgical worship kolisha. Though they would continue to have a role in the musical rituals of the domestic sphere at home, burials and weddings, these customs were not documented as liturgical music and its creators and performers were. The vast majority of major musicologists and music historians have been men. Nevertheless, some women musicologists have reached the top ranks of the profession. She has been described by the Harvard Gazette as "one of the world's most accomplished and admired music historians".
Susan McClary born is a musicologist associated with the " New Musicology " who incorporates feminist music criticism in her work. One of her best known works is Feminine Endings , which covers musical constructions of gender and sexuality, gendered aspects of traditional music theory, gendered sexuality in musical narrative, music as a gendered discourse and issues affecting women musicians. In the book, McClary suggests that the sonata form used in symphonies and string quartets may be a sexist or misogynistic procedure that constructs of gender and sexual identity.
McClary's Conventional Wisdom argues that the traditional musicological assumption of the existence of "purely musical" elements, divorced from culture and meaning, the social and the body, is a conceit used to veil the social and political imperatives of the worldview that produces the classical canon most prized by supposedly objective musicologists. Ethnomusicologists study the many musics around the world that emphasize their cultural, social, material, cognitive, biological, and other dimensions or contexts instead of or in addition to its isolated sound component or any particular repertoire.
Initially, ethnomusicology was almost exclusively oriented toward non- Western music, but now includes the study of Western music from anthropological, sociological and intercultural perspectives. While music critics argued in the s that "women lacked the innate creativity to compose good music" due to "biological predisposition",  later, it was accepted that women would have a role in music education , and they became involved in this field "to such a degree that women dominated music education during the latter half of the 19th century and well into the 20th century.
Despite the limitations imposed on women's roles in music education in the 19th century, women were accepted as kindergarten teachers, because this was deemed to be a "private sphere". Women also taught music privately, in girl's schools, Sunday schools, and they trained musicians in school music programs. By the turn of the 20th century, women began to be employed as music supervisors in elementary schools, teachers in normal schools and professors of music in universities. Women also became more active in professional organizations in music education, and women presented papers at conferences.
While a small number of women served as President of the Music Supervisors National Conference and the following renamed versions of the organization over the next century in the early 20th century, there were only two female Presidents between and , which "[p]ossibly reflects discrimination. From to , there were five female Presidents of this organization. Sandra Wieland Howe, there is still a " glass ceiling " for women in music education careers, as there is "stigma" associated with women in leadership positions and "men outnumber women as administrators.
The majority of professional orchestra conductors are male; The Guardian called conducting "one of the last glass ceilings in the music industry". While there is a lack of women in professional orchestra, more recent studies show that the conducting profession itself lacks gender and racial diversity. There is a clear distinction between the low number of white women in the field compared to that of white men, but there is an even lower number of other racial and ethnic identities.
Positions such as conductors, executives, and staff are dominated by white individuals, in particular, white males. In high level executive positions, it remains rare to see women or people of color. This awareness has caused positive impacts in the orchestrating field. Many women within the orchestrating profession experience forms of discrimination whether it be gender, racial, or both.
Women, initially, were not encouraged to play professionally because it was deemed inappropriate by society. Women were further considered neither strong enough nor skilled enough to play instruments other than the piano, or to survive grueling rehearsal schedules. She is the founder and music director of the Black Pearl Chamber Orchestra, the first multi-ethnic professional orchestra in Philadelphia.
A graduate of Wellesley College and the University of Chicago , she is a conductor , composer and pianist. From , she was the assistant conductor of The Chamber Orchestra of Philadelphia. That's where female conductors have had a hard time. Our society is more resistant to women being powerful in public than to women being entertaining. The turn for women's rights in music began the feminist movement in America in While the women's rights movement meant the start of including women into the orchestrating field, there would still be barriers that these women needed to overcome.
Women of color, in particular, were faced with many stereotypes that challenged the worthiness of their work. In fact, black women's work in the field faced more scrutiny than their white counterparts. A classic example of this is seen in a study conducted for the Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education, by Elliot Charles, in Elliot Examined:.
Whether race and gender influenced judgments of musical performances. Four trumpeters and four flutists were videotaped performing the same music excerpt. For each instrument, one white male, one white female, one black male, and one black female, served as models. To control the audio portion of the study, the researcher used two prerecorded performances, one for the trumpets and one for the flutes.
This created the same audio for all trumpets and flute performances. College music majors rated each performance on a Likert-type scale. Results revealed black performers of each genders and instruments were rated significantly lower than white performers. The lowest ratings were given to black male and female trumpet players. This example demonstrates that gender discrimination was prevalent during this time, but racial discrimination must be accounted for as well. Women conductors faced sexism, racism, and gender discrimination throughout the 19th century and 20th century.
Women conductors continue to face sexism and gender discrimination in the early decades of the 21st century. In the s, several notable male conductors and musicians made sexist statements about women conductors. In , " Vasily Petrenko , the principal conductor of the Oslo Philharmonic and the Royal Liverpool Philharmonic , provoked outrage when he told a Norwegian newspaper that 'orchestras react better when they have a man in front of them. Mantovani raised the "problem of maternity " and he questioned the ability of women to withstand the physical challenges and stresses of the profession, which he claimed involve "conducting, taking a plane, taking another plane, conducting again.
Petersburg Philharmonic , made sexist statements about women conductors in a September interview, stating that "The essence of the conductor's profession is strength. The essence of a woman is weakness. According to Anwen Crawford, the "problem for women [popular music critics] is that our role in popular music was codified long ago", which means that "[b]ooks by living female rock critics or jazz, hip-hop, and dance-music critics, for that matter are scant".
Sociologist Simon Frith noted that pop and rock music "are closely associated with gender; that is, with conventions of male and female behaviour". The American music critic Ann Powers , as a female critic and journalist for a popular, male-dominated industry, has written critiques the perceptions of sex, racial and social minorities in the music industry.
She has also written about feminism. Every woman who has ever ventured an opinion on popular music could give you some variation [of this experience] They found that 'the average classical music critic is a white, year-old male with a graduate degree , but twenty-six percent of all critics writing are female. Osborne states that the "large US papers, which are the ones that influence public opinion, have virtually no women classical music critics.
Midgette was the "first woman to cover classical music in the entire history of the paper. A Sound on Sound article stated that there are "few women in record production and sound engineering. Despite this, women haven been taking on the challenge since the s. Lillian McMurry was a record producer and founder of Trumpet Records in the s. One of the first women to produce, engineer, arrange and promote music on her own rock and roll music label was Cordell Jackson She founded the Moon Records label in Memphis in and began releasing and promoting on the label singles she recorded in her home studio, serving as engineer, producer and arranger.
Ethel Gabriel had a year career with RCA and was the first major label record producer. Women in music are often seen mainly in singing roles in popular music and there are relatively few women DJs or turntablists in hip hop music , house music , nu metal and other genres where DJs and turntablists participate. Indeed, all of these genres are very male-dominated.
Part of this may stem from a general low percentage of women in audio technology-related jobs, such as audio engineering and production. She explains: "an exclusive focus on women's supposed failure to enter the field An equally challenging question is why and how boys have come to love things technical, how boys have historically been socialized as technophiles. Lucy Green has focused on gender in relation to musical performers and creators, and specifically on educational frameworks as they relate to both.
Women's music also womyn 's music or wimmin's music is music by women, for women, and about women. The International Alliance for Women in Music IAWM is an international organization of women and men dedicated to fostering and encouraging the activities of women in music, particularly in the areas of musical activity, such as composing , performing, and research, in which gender discrimination is an historic and ongoing concern. The IAWM engages in efforts to increase the programming of music by female composers , to combat discrimination against female musicians, including as symphony orchestra members, and to include accounts of the contributions of women musicians in university music curricula.
It aims to "support, cultivate and recognize the talents of women" in music. WIM-NY members include "record label executives, artist managers, songwriters, musicians, attorneys, recording engineers, agents, publicists, studio owners, music publishers, online and traditional marketers" from "all genres of music and all areas of the [music] industry. It is a federally registered non-profit organization that aims to "foste[r] equality in the music industry through the support and advancement of women. Riot grrrl is an underground feminist hardcore punk movement that originally started in the early s, in Washington, D.
It has also been described as a musical genre that came out of indie rock, with the punk scene serving as an inspiration for a musical movement in which women could express themselves in the same way men had been doing for the past several years. Riot grrrl bands often address issues such as rape, domestic abuse , sexuality , racism, patriarchy , and female empowerment.
The use of the word "girl" was meant to indicate a time when girls are least influenced by societal pressures and therefore have the strongest self-esteem — childhood. The anger behind the movement was noted by the alternate spelling of the word as "grrrl", which sounds like a growl. They partook in a new type of punk feminism that promoted the idea of do-it-yourself, exchanging manifestos and trading mixed tapes of favorite bands to get the word out.
In, response to patriarchal violence, adultism, and heterocentrism ,  Riot grrrl engaged in negative emotional expressions and rhetoric similar to that of feminism and the punk aesthetic. The feminist argument that the personal is political was revisited in the image that Riot grrrl set forth, similarly to the culture of Punk that self-actualization is not to be found in external forces but rather through an individual's true self.
By recognizing and reevaluating the institutional structures that affect individual experiences within social situations, an individual can gain the knowledge to better know herself and therefore know how to present herself to others so that they may know her accurately.
- Hal Leonard?
- and print booklet.
- Collected Contraptions.
- Sleep with Me.
- Mexico Ring and the Geographical Cure: Stories Short and Long!
- The Good Sister.
SATB opt. Lloyd Larson This modern worship song has become a standard for both choirs and congregations. Anna Laura Page 31 Anna Laura Page has taken this hymn classic and put it into a lovely setting for choir, solo handbells and flute. Instrumental parts included SATB You will find this accessible to choirs of all sizes SATB James Koerts 41 An incredible message of mission is proclaimed in this uplifting and engaging song arranged by James Koerts. Includes optional flute and violin parts, which will add an fresh element of color and excitement to this outstanding rendition SATB Keith Christopher 38 Full of energy and excitement, this contemporary song in neo-classical style will find a place in services for the Easter season and beyond SATB Daniel Grassi 42 This sensitive text and tune is beautifully arranged by Daniel Grassi.
You will find this effective for communion and many other services as well SATB Heather Sorenson This strong worship song has already become a staple in congregational repertoire. Keith Christopher A gospel standard is given new life with a new meter and a contemporary feel.
An optional soloist sets the musical stage for this uplifting and encouraging anthem of praise SATB Heather Sorenson Heather Sorenson puts a new spin on this ancient hymn, making it appealing for choirs of any size. The contemporary flavor in this arrangement will make it workable for a variety of congregations SATB Heather Sorenson 46 There is a deep and personal message for each listener and singer in this inspirational song of worship SATB Cliff Duren 48 Cliff Duren has taken this immortal hymn and fashioned it into a contemporary style that will be accessible to a variety of choirs and meaningful to any congregation SATB Mark Brymer This celebratory anthem is upbeat and energetic, making for a terrific service opening.
Mark Brymer This modern setting of the model prayer will be a welcome addition to your choral library and will be useful in a variety of worship settings SATB Robert Sterling Here is a lovely prayer of adoration to our Lord and King. Keith Christopher With an optional Scripture reading at the beginning, this is a perfect choice for Pentecost Sunday. Mark Brymer Workable as single anthems or as a multi-song musical presentation, this collection by Mark Brymer will be a useful tool for student choirs of all ages. The various accompaniment products will be especially helpful for rehearsals and performance.
Complete Kit New for Church 58 Orchestra! Keith Christopher Here is an exciting instrumental arrangement based on the popular anthem of the same title. Harold Ross There s a place for heavy souls, where grace abounds and healing flows, and the lost are welcomed home at the cross SATB Camp Kirkland When the stars burn down and the earth wears out and we stand before the throne, we ll be singing blessing and honor and power forever to our God SATB Camp Kirkland O the blood of Jesus washes me.
What a sacrifice that saved my life. Yes, the blood, it is my victory SATB Travis Cottrell This arrangement comes from the Alive Forever collection. Cottrell has arranged the new modern hymn by Keith Getty and Stuart Townend with a more traditional statement of The Solid Rock to make a great declaration that in Christ alone we have the assurance and strength that we need for each day SATB Daniel Semsen Lord, we come to worship You; Lord, we bow our hearts in awe. Keith Christopher A familiar hymn is dressed up in contemporary attire here in this appealing and accessible setting SATB Camp Kirkland Where can we go, but to the cross?
For there our shame is washed away. So we run to the cross and surrender all so Christ can be our everything. Michael Neale and Jay Rouse All creation joins to sing, Not unto us, O Lord, but unto Your name be all honor and glory, wisdom and strength, power and blessing unto Your name all praise! Richard Kingsmore We ll sing an anthem to His beautiful name, join the heavens, let the earth proclaim, bless the Lord! Complete with a powerful organ accompaniment and triumphant brass, this anthem is a strong general worship selection extolling God s power to redeem and transform SATB Phillip Keveren The thought-provoking words of Bryan Jeffery Leech take a gentle December evening and place us at the manger scene.
Martin Picture a traditional stone-walled church beautiful and powerful. Now picture it bursting with enthusiastic worshipers. There is a timehonored confidence to the musical statement Martin has given to the singers, and the words march well to the tune. A cello adds a warm strength to the anthem. The musical picture becomes complete when the opening phrase ends with the prayer, fill this house with grace SATB Doug Andrews setting is beckoning.
The vocal lines are simple yet interesting, especially with the hint of the gentle jazz harmonies he incorporates SATB Dale Grotenhuis This setting of the well-known hymn comes from well-respected arranger Dale Grotenhuis. Typical of his best-loved pieces, this new arrangement for SATB, organ and brass features solid writing of easily learned vocal parts supported by well-crafted accompaniment from both the keyboard and the instruments SATB Glenn A. It isn t like any you have heard before.
Glenn Pickett s accompaniment grabs your attention first, but the vocal lines follow suit quickly. His playful reharmonization should satisfy but then he launches into a quasi-counterpoint that is simply heavenly. The rhythmic return brings us home with joy in our hearts SATB Traditional hymns dressed in fresh and snazzy outfits that captivate young singers and teach them our legacy of hymnody is grabbing everyone s attention.
The series offers a host of correlating products: Accompaniment Tracks, Orchestral Score and Parts, and a downloadable Digital Toolkit including a short skit, director s resources, activity sheet, and much more. Teaching old hymns has never been so much fun! Holy, Holy, Holy arr. Heather Sorenson Unison Bright Mansions arr.
Stacey V. Judith Herrington Part Memley SATB div. Randall Hartsell Composer, teacher and church musician Randall Hartsell has succeeded in creating 10 beautifully unique piano arrangements of these popular hymns. Unexpected tonal surprises abound, and each is succinct yet completely creative. Essential for every uke player! Historically, bands have helped lead revolutions, crusades, campaigns, churches, rallies, and entire nations.
The role bands play in worship, though important, is not the pinnacle of the calling or mandate according to Jesus. While it s okay to have a good rock band and want to go places, many creatively gifted Christians miss the mark entirely and are derailed by their own quests for something other than God. Likewise, worship teams sometimes miss the mark by placing too much emphasis on performance and not enough on relationships.
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Today s date: The person this service is being planned for is: Their name exactly as it should appear in the worship bulletin: The person s date of birth: If deceased, the person s date of death: The person. Hallelujah Your love is amazing Steady and unchanging Your love is a mountain Firm beneath my feet Your love is a myst'ry How You gently lift me When I am surrounded Your love carries me 1 Hallelujah hallelujah.
The Lord is here. God s Spirit is with us. Lift up your hearts. We lift them to the Lord. I Saw the Light 2. Great Is Thy Faithfulness 4. All Creatures of our God and King 5. Amazing Grace 6. Great are You Lord. Entrance Song We sing to celebrate that we. Stand Up and Shout It! Stand up and shout it if you love my Jesus, Stand up and shout it if you love my Lord, I want to know, oh, I want to know, do you love my Lord? Chorus: He s my rock, my sword, my. It is added as a bonus for the student to practise using the English language in an enjoyable and satisfying way.
The 31 Christian. For Pope Benedict and all bishops,. Suggested altered words are in red. The purpose was to change as few words as possible and stay congruent. Serving in the Love of Christ Opening Prayer Service September To prepare for this prayer service: Prepare a prayer focus table with the banner, a green cloth, a Christ candle, the plaque. Hallelujah Hallelujah Hallelujah You re the lifter of my head. During Lent and Easter, we remember and. Handbell Accomp. Advent Wreath and Prayers The Advent wreath itself is simply a circle of greens holding four candles.
Even little children will be delighted to assist or accompany parents in buying or cutting tree boughs. The season of Advent has been set aside as. Glory Hallelujah, Amen! Praise to God, hosannas we raise! All Glory, Laud and Honor St. If you are reading this, then more than likely you are embarking on a week-long adventure serving our Lord and Savior along the U. The spirit of the Lord God is upon me, because the Lord has anointed me; He has sent me to bring good news to the oppressed, to bind up the broken-hearted, to.
Prayers These prayers and intercessions are intended to bring sisters to light throughout the liturgical year. Advent This is a season for waiting and wondering. Help us to prepare our hearts for Jesus. Funeral Plans for: Behold, I make all things new. While everything else around us is changing,. A Very Merry Christmas! It s that time of year to spread Christmas cheer and celebrate Jesus. There s joy in the air. There s holiday sounds and love all around. Church bells are ringing! They re all over. God Loves Us God Created the World Learning about God The Promise of a Savior On this feast we.
We cannot give strong support unless we become mighty men. None of us should fail because this is God s plan. God wants us to. CCLI is the nation s leading provider of licensing services for. Bible Time. Bible Time for. Mission and Service Candle-Lighting Services for Worship and Home Introduction Here are two ideas for Advent candle-lighting: one for worship services and one to be used at home by your church families. With these words the Church invites us to prepare our hearts to receive the newborn Jesus with greater humility,.
Opening Prayer. In today s session, we will discover that. We cannot undo what is done. We cannot foresee what will come. Let us instead dwell in your peace, love and be loved, heal and be healed. Wholeness and Healing This form of the Kyrie eleison is particularly suitable Lord Jesus, you heal the sick:. Baptized Christians should be buried from the Church. We begin in the name of the Father. But if. Go With The Flow Perfect skies perfect skies For a perfect ride: for a perfect ride I'm looking at the ocean in my view.
I see you I see you In each move I do. In each move I do I want to ride. Traditional Prayers The Sign of the Cross.
In the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. Our Father, Who art in heaven, hallowed be Thy name.